To begin with, education from the ages of 6 to 16 is compulsory in Ride past tense. Of course, this does not cancel the existence of private lyceums and universities, but this is the exception rather than the rule. Any teacher or lecturer in France is a public servant and receives his salary from the federal budget. Requirements for teachers are high, and if a teacher teaches in the last years of school, when it is especially important for a child to get decent grades for further study at university, such a teacher must have a special university diploma. There are about 1 million people working in education in France, 800 thousand of them are teachers and lecturers.
As in Russia, the prestige of the teaching profession has fallen considerably in recent decades. Reforms in the education system over the last twenty years impose more and more demands on teachers, but their salaries are not growing. Young teachers receive on average €1,500 per month, or 60,000 rubles. Compared to Russia, this is, of course, a chic teacher’s salary. For reference: the average teacher’s salary in Russia in 2000 was 1.28 thousand rubles, in 2004 – about six thousand rubles, in 2009 – 11.6 thousand rubles.
As the vice president of Sorbonne-Paris University (IV) Denis Laboureux told the journalists, if a teacher has a degree “aggrege”, that is teaching children from 15 to 18 years old in the lyceum, his salary will be 3.7 thousand euros at most. Assistant professors in universities earn at the beginning of their teaching career 1.6-1.7 thousand euros, but the maximum is 3.7 thousand euros. A good level of salary of 6 thousand euros can be achieved by an emeritus university teacher. The university stipend depends on the social conditions of the family that sent the child to study. At most it can be 800 euros per month.
It should be noted that the modern Sorbonne is a number of universities that are united by the same name. Among them there are both strong and not so strong. The Sorbonne IV teaches more and more Latin and Greek, philosophy and art history. The university management honestly admits that after the first year almost half of the students drop out, and it is just as difficult to find a job as it is in Russia for classical philologists. A total of about 300 doctoral dissertations are defended each year at the Sorbonne.
Since 1972 the University of Paris, which traces its history back to 1215, has 13 universities, differing in their areas of study. From time to time more and more universities are allowed to carry the high name. They belong to the three academies of Paris and the Ile-de-France, and four of the universities are located mainly in the historic buildings of the Sorbonne. We were lucky enough to visit just one of the historic buildings on rue Victor Cousin. Already in September, promised the vice-president of the university, the historical facade of the building, which literally keeps the imprints of time, will be covered with scaffolding and the appearance of the university will change.
School education in France is quite different from that in Russia, at least because it is a 12-year program that includes vocational training. In other words, it is possible to graduate with a diploma as a waiter or maid, which corresponds to the level of our vocational schools. Strictly speaking, children aged 6 to 15 are trained in colleges, and teenagers from 15 to 18 chew the granite of math games for grade 2 science in lyceums, which are divided into three types: general educational, technical and professional.
According to Alexander Orlov, the Ambassador of Russia in Russia, before the territorial principle of school education functioned in France, children from poor regions could get to a good lyceum in another district only if they had some “zest” in reserve, for example, knowledge of Russian as a foreign language. Due to the abolition of this principle, the position of the Russian language has weakened considerably, and today it is barely in fifth place in popularity.
The stronger the lyceum, the better the chances to enter the cherished university. As stressed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Science of France, there are many other areas where it is possible to get a bribe, but not education. Universities are only interested in a student’s dossier and academic performance.